Environmental Mobility and Solidarity
webinar on 15 June 2021
Over the last decades, increasing attention has been given to environmental mobility by policymakers and academics. With the increasing visibility of climate change and its consequences, interest in this research topic has grown exponentially. In this webinar, we introduce the overall dynamics of interconnected systemic injustice and solidarity by putting upfront our personal and collective responsibility to tackle the ecological crisis, and present empirical evidence on how environmental mobility and adaptation to climate change looks like, by delving deeper into the environmental migration from Morocco to Belgium and immobility in Morocco.
Subsequently we discuss, from a religious perspective, how solidarity could take shape when dealing with environmental mobility and how to frame it as an issue of ‘climate justice’. The question of solidarity has emerged on the activist and policy agendas, as people affected by environmental changes are often not the ones that have contributed to them in the first place. Hence, solidarity seems appropriate, however, it remains unclear how it should be organized and by whom.
There are various ways in which people have reflected upon some kind of solidarity and/or justice. Solidarity could emerge within existing migrant networks and be facilitated by policy makers. So far, there is still a large potential for religious organizations to play a role in the reduction of climate-related risks and disaster management that has not yet been explored.
Environmental migration and displacement has also been put on the agenda of religious congregations and organizations. For instance, the Pastoral Orientations on Climate Displaced People put ten guidelines to the fore to develop a response to deal with climate displaced people, including the acknowledgement of the climate crisis and displacement nexus, the promotion of awareness and outreach, the provision of alternatives to displacement, positively impacting policy making, cooperation in strategic planning and action, as well as the promotion of professional training in integral ecology and fostering academic research on this topic. It is not surprising that also religious organizations and institutions are putting this topic on their agenda as environmental mobility could threaten fundamental human rights (including adequate housing, food and water supply, etc) and could make people more in need of (international) solidarity both in terms of migration and adaptation to environmental changes. In this webinar, we aim to discuss and reflect on possible ways in which solidarity could be organized.
The webinar is co-organized by Lucia Korcsogová, participating in the European Leadership Programme as a fellow sponsored by UCSIA. The ELP is a Brussels-based project of the Jesuit European Social Centre (JESC) for master students to develop leadership skills through theoretical and practical methodologies and as such, to contribute to the formation of young leaders in the European Union.
Introduction by Peter Rožič SJ, Director of the Jesuit European Social Centre (JESC)
Peter Rožič SJ has been JESC’s director since 2017. He holds a PhD in Political Science from Georgetown University and acts as Social Apostolate Delegate for the Conference of European Provincials.
From Truth to Solidarity:
The Painful and Uncomfortable Questions We Must Ask Ourselves if We Want to Build a World of Justice
by Josianne Gauthier, Secretary General of CIDSE
In the face of a growing sense of the complex, interconnected and systemic nature of injustices, we seek to nourish a new and emboldened form of solidarity. But where can this solidarity come from and what might it actually look and feel like? It is not enough to be more or less aware of the injustices that surround us, nor to develop technical expertise on the breadth of its impact nor to be crushed by its terrible weight. We must also take stock of how we are part of these systems, what role we are currently playing and what role we can or should be taking on. What is our level of personal and collective responsibility to address the multiple layers of interwoven crises: ecological, political, economic, health, social, and spiritual?
The past two years have shaken our certainties and exposed us to new forms of vulnerability, especially in the wealthier countries, but we are conscious that the underlying human and ecological crises have been brewing and spiraling for decades. Scientists, activists, and faith leaders have all contributed to a body of knowledge that confirms what we already knew or felt. Planet and people are hurting and it is at the hands of our own overexploitation and overconsumption and production, our dependency on (or addiction to) raw materials that are non-renewable, and our throw-away culture which justify the single use of plants, people, and whatever we extract, transform, or produce. The violence of this process sometimes escapes us, the consumers, but never those who pay the highest price.
For a brief moment in the past the 12 months, our attention was grabbed, and perhaps for the first times in their lives, certain people asked some important questions about how we live together on this planet, in our common home. What have we learned about ourselves, and what can drive a new kind of action and solidarity to help rebuild together? What is it about the racial, gender, social and ecological inequalities, so terribly visible and raw during the pandemic that has driven the crises so much closer to home and how do we emerge from that feeling of hurt and revolt and pain and transform it into action for justice? What lessons can we draw from Catholic Social Teaching, the recent Synod on the Amazon, the Encyclical Letter Fratelli Tutti on fraternity and solidarity? Indeed, we believe that not only are the injustices all interconnected, but so must our solidarity. We cannot address one systemic injustice without the others, and before we act, we must listen to all sources of wisdom and transform our way of seeing each other and the world we live in. Because in our rich diversity is that courageous and bold hope we need.
Josianne Gauthier is a Canadian lawyer with over 20 years of experience in international development and solidarity, with a strong focus on human rights. She joined CIDSE as Secretary General in 2017. Since joining CIDSE, she has been actively involved in networks and actions focusing on climate justice, systemic change, and promoting sustainable lifestyles.
A Qualitative Study of the Migration-Adaptation Nexus to Deal with Environmental Change in Tinghir and Tangier (Morocco)
by Lore Van Praag, Director of the Centre for Migration and Intercultural Studies (CEMIS)
Over the last two decades, migration-as-adaptation discourses have theorized and studied how migration could facilitate adaptation to deal with the effects of adverse environmental change. However, contextual factors, such as migration trends and local social and economic contexts, as well as perceptions of this linkage have often been neglected. This presentation aims to understand how people perceive this relationship and whether and how migration, often in the form of remittances, is used for adaptation purposes.
For the study, 48 semi-structured interviews were conducted with inhabitants of Tangier and Tinghir (Morocco). These regions are confronted differently by environmental change impacts. While both face increasing precipitation and temperature changes, Tinghir is additionally confronted with drought, desertification, water scarcity, and a growing number of more extreme weather events. Furthermore, both regions receive internal migrants and experienced significant emigration towards Europe. Results indicate that migration, as well as the sending of remittances, could produce a multitude of adaptation outcomes towards environmental change, resulting in an exacerbation of existing social vulnerabilities, alter economic development at the community level, and impact the development of alternative adaptation strategies, at both the individual/household and community levels. Findings demonstrate that migration-as-adaptation discourses must be considered within social, political, economic, and environmental contexts. These discourses should consider local migration histories and prevalent cultures of migration.
Lore Van Praag (MA, PhD Sociology, Ghent University) is Director of the Centre for Migration and Intercultural Studies at the University of Antwerp. Her research interests are ethnicity, gender, climate/environmental change, migration and education.
The Importance of Environmental Factors in the Migration Biographies of Moroccan Immigrants in Belgium
by Loubna Ou-Salah M.D., doctoral candidate at the Centre for Migration and Intercultural Studies (CEMIS)
Researchers face several difficulties when assessing how environmental factors interact with the drivers of migration. Recognizing the changes in one´s immediate environment can be an extended process, which then results in lack of awareness of climate change.
Taking a biographical approach, Loubna Ou-Salah´s presentation focuses on three cases of Moroccan first-generation migrants living in Belgium. Conceiving of migration as a multi-stage process, the objective of her study is firstly to demonstrate how environmental factors are closely linked to economic, political and social factors and play different roles in the development of migration aspirations. Secondly, it aims to understand how domestic and international migration processes are linked in the study of environmental migration. We find that life stages mediate and determine the importance of environmental factors when migration decisions are made. Particularly during life stage transitions, the link between environmental factors and migration decision-making becomes more apparent. However, after major life stage transitions, people are less inclined to refer to this link. During these stages, the importance of environmental factors seems to be felt less strongly in migration trajectory narratives.
Loubna Ou-Salah is a PhD Candidate at the Centre for Migration and Intercultural Studies at the University of Antwerp. In her research, she is focusing on migration as an adaptation strategy for climate change.
The Pastoral Orientations on Climate Displaced People
by Alberto Ares SJ, Director of the University Institute for Studies on Migration Studies (IUEM) at the Comillas Pontifical University
Can we ignore the growing phenomenon of “environmental refugees”, that is, people who are forced to leave their homes due to the degradation of their natural habitats in order to face the danger and uncertainty of forced displacement? “No, we cannot!”
One of the factors that make the earth a unique home for life is its unique climate system. However, after more than 10,000 years of relative stability, our earth’s climate is changing rapidly due to human activities. The temperature rise of slightly above 1°C since the industrial age has caused tremendous suffering to millions of brothers and sisters around the world, not to mention the destruction of ecosystems and other biological communities.
The cry of a wounded humanity helps us to recognize that the climate crisis has a “human face”. The international community has recognized the severity of the climate crisis and has made tremendous efforts to resolve its impact through various agreements. Likewise, the Catholic Church recognizes and appreciates the efforts to establish a legal framework, collect data and conduct a rigorous analysis of the consequences of the climate crisis, as well as the involvement of many civil society actors in addressing this challenge. How can we continue to deal with this great challenge?
Alberto Ares Mateos, SJ. (PhD in International Migration and Development Cooperation) is Director of the University Institute for Studies on Migration Studies at the Universidad Pontificia Comillas. He specialized in social ethics, obtaining a Licentiate in Sacred Theology from Boston College; and a degree in Economics and Business.
Panel debate and Q&A
moderated by Peter Rožič, SJ, Director of the Jesuit European Social Centre